CHLORINE : Lung Damaging Agent
EPA . Washington, DC: U. Environmental Protection Agency. NIOSH . Cincinnati, OH: U. OSHA . Chlorine ResidualChapter In: Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Sullivan J, Douek M . Determination of inorganic chlorine species in kraft mill bleach effluents by ion chromatography. J Chromatog A Technical Support Document pdf icon external icon. In the event of a poison emergency, call the poison center immediately at If the person who is poisoned cannot wake up, has a hard time breathing, or has convulsions, call emergency services.
For information on who to contact in an emergency, see the CDC website at emergency. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. Section Navigation. Minus Related Pages. Common Names: Molecular chlorine. Agent Characteristics. It is widely used as bleach in the manufacture of paper and cloth and in manufacturing solvents, pesticides, synthetic rubber, and refrigerants.
Chlorine has also been used as a chemical warfare choking agent. The lowest level at which humans can smell chlorine and notice its irritant properties generally provides sufficient warning of exposure; however, chronic exposure to chlorine causes adaptation of the sense of smell olfactory fatigue and tolerance to its irritant effects. Because of this, persons with a history of prolonged exposure lose the ability to identify when they are being exposed to chlorine. Chlorine is usually shipped in steel cylinders as a compressed liquefied gas.
Water: Chlorine can be used to contaminate water. Food: Food is an unlikely route of dissemination. Outdoor Air: Chlorine can be released into outdoor air as a gas. Agricultural: If chlorine is released as a gas, it is highly unlikely to contaminate agricultural products. Contact with the escaping gas may cause frost bite.
Significant skin absorption or ingestion is unlikely. Chlorine is a gas at room temperature, making ingestion an unlikely route of exposure. Personal Protective Equipment. Level A protection should be used until monitoring results confirm the contaminant and the concentration of the contaminant.
NOTE: Safe use of protective clothing and equipment requires specific skills developed through training and experience.Bromide Iodide. It is formed when the element chlorine a halogen gains an electron or when a compound such as hydrogen chloride is dissolved in water or other polar solvents. Chloride salts such as sodium chloride are often very soluble in water.
Less frequently, the word chloride may also form part of the "common" name of chemical compounds in which one or more chlorine atoms are covalently bonded. A chloride ion is much larger than a chlorine atom, and 99 pm, respectively. The ion is colorless and diamagnetic.
In aqueous solution, it is highly soluble in most cases; however, for some chloride salts, such as silver chloride, lead II chloride, and mercury I chloride, they are slightly soluble in water.
Sea water contains 1. Some chloride-containing minerals include the chlorides of sodium halite or NaClpotassium sylvite or KCland magnesium bischofitehydrated MgCl 2.
The concentration of chloride in the blood is called serum chlorideand this concentration is regulated by the kidneys.
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A chloride ion is a structural component of some proteins, e. Chloride is usually though not always at a higher extracellular concentration, causing it to have a negative reversal potential around mV at 37 degrees Celsius in a mammalian cell. Chloride is an essential electrolytetrafficking in and out of cells through chloride channels and playing a key role in maintaining cell homeostasis and transmitting action potentials in neurons. The chlor-alkali industry is a major consumer of the world's energy budget.
This process converts sodium chloride into chlorine and sodium hydroxide, which are used to make many other materials and chemicals. The process involves two parallel reactions:. Another major application involving chloride is desalinationwhich involves the energy intensive removal of chloride salts to give potable water.
In the petroleum industrythe chlorides are a closely monitored constituent of the mud system. An increase of the chlorides in the mud system may be an indication of drilling into a high-pressure saltwater formation. Its increase can also indicate the poor quality of a target sand.
Many water regulating companies around the world utilize chloride to check the contamination levels of the rivers and potable water sources. Chloride salts such as sodium chloride are used to preserve food.Some of the most common items in your house might not be as safe as you think.
One example? The dangers of bleach, one of the most commonly used disinfectants in the world. In addition, one of the scariest dangers of bleach involves what happens when you mix it on purpose or without realizing it with other household chemicals.
BuzzFeed includes three toxic bleach combinations on a list of common products never to mix, warning readers about what happens when bleach comes into contact with vinegar, ammonia or rubbing alcohol.
Still, some of the dangers of bleach are not well-known, and people continue to mix products and expose themselves and their families to dangerous chemicals, all in the name of cleanliness.
To be specific, bleach is a disinfectant and stain remover. Bleach can be purchased in both liquid and powder forms. Many industrial processes also employ the use of bleach to kill germs, destroy weeds and bleach wood pulp.
Is It Safe to Mix Cleaning Products with Bleach?
Depending on the type of bleach you get, it may or may not contain chlorine. Typically, bleaches either contain an active ingredient of chlorine sodium hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide. After using water as a base, a typical bottle of bleach contains: 2.
Children exposed to the same levels of sodium hydroxide in air as adults may receive a larger dose because they have greater lung surface area:body weight ratios and increased minute volumes:weight ratios. In addition, they may be exposed to higher levels than adults in the same location because of their short stature and the higher levels of sodium hydroxide in air found nearer to the ground.
Direct contact with the solid or with concentrated solutions causes thermal and chemical burns leading to deep-tissue injuries. Very strong solutions of sodium hydroxide can hydrolyze proteins in the eyes, leading to severe burns and eye damage or, in extreme cases, blindness.
Ingestion of sodium hydroxide can cause severe corrosive injury to the lips, tongue, oral mucosa, esophagus, and stomach.
Stridor, vomiting, drooling, and abdominal pain are early symptoms of sodium hydroxide ingestion. Ingestion may lead to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and shock. While home cleaning products do not contain enough sodium hydroxide to cause some of these effects on their own such as chemical burnsthere is already evidence that aerosol use of bleach does have an impact on the respiratory systems of both adults and children.
Chlorine bleach is not believed to bioaccumulate in the body, but the damage it does may compound over time. Chlorine poisoning is a definite concern when using bleach products with sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride.
This may occur when bleach an ammonia are mixed more on that in a moment ; or if bleach is directly ingested.Swimming is a great form of exercise, especially for people with lung problems.
However, swimming in a pool can sometimes cause allergy, especially if you have a sensitivity to chlorine. Chlorine is a skin irritant. Can chlorine make your skin itch?
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Yes, especially if you have a sensitive skin. It causes drying of the skin, which makes it prone to irritation. It can also indirectly contribute to respiratory problems by irritating the respiratory tract. Prolonged exposure to swimming pools with high chlorine content puts you at risk for asthma and other respiratory illnesses. Swimming pools contain chlorine but usually in small amount. However, some swimming pools have high level of chlorine. The purpose of chlorine in the swimming pool is to disinfect it so that bacteria and other pathogens will be killed.
However, some people develop chlorine allergy. They complain of chlorine rash and discomfort. A chlorine rash is also known as swimming pool rash because the rash appears after patients have been to a swimming pool.
Photo 1: A typical clinical manifestation of a chlorine rash. Picture Source: doctordecides. Image 2: A severe form of chlorine rash wherein there is an obvious inflammation and reddish discoloration of the skin. Photo Source: medmum. Photo 3: A severe form of chlorine rash affecting the abdomen and the upper torso. Picture Source: medicalbite. As the name implies, chlorine is the primary causative factor for chlorine rash. What is a chlorine?
It is a yellow-green dense gas used to kill bacteria. It is added in the swimming pool and public pools to get rid of bacteria and other pathogens. However, too high chlorine level can cause skin irritation and other health problems.
Those with chlorine intolerance are susceptible to rashes and respiratory-related problems.John Laing Leal May 5, — March 13, was a physician and water treatment expert who, inwas responsible for conceiving and implementing the first disinfection of a U. He was one of the principal expert witnesses at two trials which examined the quality of the water supply in Jersey City, New Jerseyand which evaluated the safety and utility of chlorine for production of "pure and wholesome" drinking water.twenty øne piløts VS Ed Sheeran - Shape Of Chlorine (MASHUP)
The second trial verdict approved the use of chlorine to disinfect drinking water which led to an explosion of its use in water supplies across the U. John L. Leal was born in Andes, New Yorkin Inhis father, John R. John R. InDr. Leal moved his family from Andes to the rapidly growing industrial city of Paterson, New Jersey. Leal received his primary education at the Paterson Seminary.
He attended Princeton College now Princeton University from to Leal attended medical school at the Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons from to where he received his medical degree.
After obtaining his medical degree, Leal opened a medical practice in Paterson, New Jersey, and was appointed City Physician in Along with other physicians, he founded the outpatient clinic at Paterson General Hospital in and worked there until Inhe married Amy Arrowsmith and their only son, Graham, was born within the year.
Leal's career in Paterson city government continued with his appointment as Health Inspector in and Health Officer in As Health Officer, Leal was responsible for the identification of epidemics of communicable diseases and for the disinfection of the homes of the afflicted.
He also oversaw the public water supply and was responsible for constructing the growing network of sewers to remove domestic and industrial wastes from the City. To prevent the spread of contagious diseases, he was responsible for building an Isolation Hospital in Paterson inwhich, at the time, was considered a model facility. InLeal left the city's service and became the sanitary adviser to the East Jersey Water Company.
His decision to focus on matters of public health and the safety of drinking water was driven in part by his personal experiences and from the influence of Garret Hobartwho became the 24th Vice President of the United States in Leal belonged to a large number of professional associations.
Inhe was Vice President of that organization. Despite his concentration on water treatment affairs afterhe was still involved in the Passaic County Medical Society, serving on the Legislative Committee in and in he was President.
Moses N. Fuller and the New Jersey water supply expert Charles A. InJersey City entered into a contract with Patrick H. Flynn to build a water supply to replace the one that was significantly contaminated by sewage. A large dam was built on the Rockaway River which resulted in the formation of Boonton Reservoir that had a capacity of over 7 billion gallons of water.
Leal as its sanitary adviser. Included in Leal's responsibilities was the removal of illegally constructed privies and other obvious sources of sewage contamination from the watershed above Boonton Reservoir. The dam, reservoir and mile pipeline was completed and on May 4,water from the project was first delivered to Jersey City. As was common at this time, no treatment of any kind was provided to the water supply. Among the many complaints by Jersey City officials was the contention that the water served to the city was not "pure and wholesome" as required by the contract.
The first trial was held before Frederick W. The first day of trial was February 20,and the trial was not completed until dozens of witnesses had been heard over 40 days of trial comprising hundreds of exhibits and thousands of pages of testimony.In chemistry, the formula weight is a quantity computed by multiplying the atomic weight in atomic mass units of each element in a chemical formula by the number of atoms of that element present in the formula, then adding all of these products together.
If the formula used in calculating molar mass is the molecular formula, the formula weight computed is the molecular weight. The percentage by weight of any atom or group of atoms in a compound can be computed by dividing the total weight of the atom or group of atoms in the formula by the formula weight and multiplying by Using the chemical formula of the compound and the periodic table of elements, we can add up the atomic weights and calculate molecular weight of the substance.
When calculating molecular weight of a chemical compound, it tells us how many grams are in one mole of that substance. The formula weight is simply the weight in atomic mass units of all the atoms in a given formula. We use the most common isotopes. This is how to calculate molar mass average molecular weightwhich is based on isotropically weighted averages.
This is not the same as molecular mass, which is the mass of a single molecule of well-defined isotopes. For bulk stoichiometric calculations, we are usually determining molar mass, which may also be called standard atomic weight or average atomic mass.
A common request on this site is to convert grams to moles. To complete this calculation, you have to know what substance you are trying to convert. The reason is that the molar mass of the substance affects the conversion. This site explains how to find molar mass. Formula weights are especially useful in determining the relative weights of reagents and products in a chemical reaction.
These relative weights computed from the chemical equation are sometimes called equation weights. Molecular weight of Chlorine.Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number The second-lightest of the halogensit appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent : among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the Pauling scale, behind only oxygen and fluorine.
The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride common salthas been known since ancient times. Aroundchlorine gas was first synthesised in a chemical reaction, but not recognised as a fundamentally important substance. Carl Wilhelm Scheele wrote a description of chlorine gas insupposing it to be an oxide of a new element.
Because of its great reactivity, all chlorine in the Earth's crust is in the form of ionic chloride compounds, which includes table salt. It is the second-most abundant halogen after fluorine and twenty-first most abundant chemical element in Earth's crust. These crustal deposits are nevertheless dwarfed by the huge reserves of chloride in seawater. Elemental chlorine is commercially produced from brine by electrolysispredominantly in the chlor-alkali process. The high oxidising potential of elemental chlorine led to the development of commercial bleaches and disinfectantsand a reagent for many processes in the chemical industry.
Chlorine is used in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products, about two-thirds of them organic chemicals such as polyvinyl chlorideand many intermediates for the production of plastics and other end products which do not contain the element. As a common disinfectant, elemental chlorine and chlorine-generating compounds are used more directly in swimming pools to keep them clean and sanitary.
Elemental chlorine at high concentrations is extremely dangerous and poisonous for all living organisms, and was used in World War I as the first gaseous chemical warfare agent. In the form of chloride ionschlorine is necessary to all known species of life. Other types of chlorine compounds are rare in living organisms, and artificially produced chlorinated organics range from inert to toxic.
In the upper atmospherechlorine-containing organic molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons have been implicated in ozone depletion. Small quantities of elemental chlorine are generated by oxidation of chloride to hypochlorite in neutrophils as part of the immune response against bacteria.
The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride, has been known since ancient times; archaeologists have found evidence that rock salt was used as early as BC and brine as early as BC. Elemental chlorine was probably first isolated around with the discovery of aqua regia and its ability to dissolve gold, since chlorine gas is one of the products of this reaction: it was however not recognised as a new substance.