Communicable diseases questions
A four year-old child is recovering from chicken pox varicella.
The parents would like to have the child return to day care as soon as possible. In order to ensure that the illness is no longer communicable, the nurse would assess for? An 8-year-old, African immigrant is admitted to the pediatric unit with elevated viral titers for the poliovirus. Which of the following is the best method to prevent the spread of infection to an immunosuppressed child?
An immunized child with a serious puncture wound has been diagnosed with tetanus. Which of the following actions is critical for the unit charge nurse to perform?
The nurse assesses what clinical manifestation to be the priority in a child with Enterobius pinworm? A 5-year-old child who has received no vaccinations is admitted to the pediatric unit with a diagnosis of diphtheria.
Rhinorrhea and coryza. All lesions crusted. Elevated temperature. Presence of vesicles. Flank pain. Petechial rash. Have people wash their hands prior to contact with the child. Assign the same nurses to care for the child each day. Administer antibiotics prophylactically to the child. Limit visitors to family members only. Order a hypothermia mattress and prescribed antiviral medications for the child. Assign only fully immunized nurses to care for the child. Check that the child is maintained on contact isolation.
IgG levels. Western blot. CD4 cell count. Nocturnal anal itching. Weight loss. Chronic or relapsing diarrhea. Markedly edematous neck. Macular papular rash.
Conjunctival hemorrhages. Strawberry-red tongue. Loading ….Noncommunicable diseases NCDs represent the leading cause of death globally. These 4 common behavioral risk factors increase the risk of people developing one or more NCDs.
Globalization, population growth, and population ageing are factors in the increasing NCD burden. Cardiovascular disease, one of the 4 main NCDs, kills approximately Three-quarters of all cardiovascular disease deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries LMICsdemonstrating how inequality negatively affects NCDs survival rates. Despite common perceptions as "male" diseases, ischaemic heart disease and stroke are the leading causes of death in women worldwide. This is due in large part to exposure to tobacco, unhealthy diets, and physical inactivity that starts as early as adolescence.
An effective NCD response within countries and communities will integrate prevention and control interventions into reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health programmes and policies. Unhealthy diets are a leading risk factor for developing obesity and NCDs, including diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. Preventing these NCDs means eating more fruits and vegetables, and limiting the consumption of processed foods high in salt, sugar, and fat.
This can be accomplished by avoiding risk factors and implementing existing evidence-based prevention strategies. The cancer burden can also be reduced through early detection of cancer and management of patients who develop cancer. Many cancers have a high chance of cure if diagnosed early and treated adequately. Governments have agreed to reduce premature deaths from NCDs by one-third by as part of achieving the Agenda for Sustainable Development.
The vast majority of these deaths can be prevented by vaccination against human papilloma virus HPV or cervical cancer screening. Health Topics. Year of the Nurse and the Midwife About Us. Skip to main content.
Noncommunicable diseases and mental health. Test your knowledge of noncommunicable diseases NCDs. True False True.
You are here: Noncommunicable diseases and mental health.While the words "infectious" and "contagious" are often used interchangeably to describe illnesses, they actually mean two very different things.
Put simply, an infectious disease is an infection. For bacteria or fungi, this means dividing and growing new cells at an exponential rate. Viruses, on the other hand, have an added hurdle of entering human cells and taking over their control centers so that they can make more of themselves. Tetanusfor example, can cause an infection, but a person with tetanus can't spread it to other people.
The bacteria live in dirt and dust and get inside your body through abrasions like cuts, scrapes, or punctures. While the pathogen can lead to a very serious infection and illness in individuals, it will almost certainly never cause a worldwide pandemic. Your body is able to clear the infection without you ever getting sick. A communicable disease is a contagious one.
The effect is external. This can lead to small, isolated outbreaks or full-scale pandemics. This rate of how fast a pathogen can spread is called the basic reproductive number, or R0, and it depends on a wide variety of factors, including how the microbe travels to new people.
Nature has no shortage of creativity in how pathogens can travel through a population. Active illness where you're sneezing or coughing a lot can give the microbe more opportunities to spread, but you don't have to have symptoms to be contagious. You don't even have to be around.
Infectious Diseases Questions
Measles, for example, can be transmitted up to four days before you even develop the telltale rashand the virus can stay in the air for as long as two hours after you have left the room. Some microbes aren't spread from person-to-person, but rather along a more circuitous person-vector-person path. Malariafor example, is spread by mosquitoes who become infected after biting someone with the disease, and then they, in turn, pass the parasite onto the next person they bite.
The presence of mosquitoes alone isn't enough to spread diseases. They are merely the pass-through. If there aren't any people around with malaria, the mosquitos can't spread the disease. A particularly gross way germs travel is referred to as fecal-oral—that is, through something contaminated by fecal matter. For instance, a doorknob is contaminated by a person who didn't wash their hands after going to the bathroom. The spoiled food may contain toxins, parasites, and bacteria.
Most often, the bacteria that spoil food and can cause illness in humans include e.Anyone can learn for free on OpenLearn, but signing-up will give you access to your personal learning profile and record of achievements that you earn while you study.
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The following questions allow you to assess your understanding of the content of this course. Each one relates to one or more of the intended learning outcomes of the study. If you are unable to answer a question, or do not understand the answer given, then reread the relevant section s of the course and try the question again. Suggest at least one example of a public health measure that can be taken to control malaria at each of the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of prevention.
Tertiary prevention refers to treatment of the life-threatening complications of malaria e. You might have thought first of the common approach to increasing awareness of hand hygiene in both locations.
The Ethiopian programme has promoted the installation of yellow plastic canisters of clean water near latrines to facilitate hand washing ideally with soap ; this is similar to the programme in English hospitals to install alcohol-based hand-hygiene stations in all wards and corridors. Secondly, both of these initiatives require community mobilisation and the full participation of staff, patients and community members in order to reduce the incidence of infectious agents transmitted on the hands.
Explain why the type of water source available is a key factor in determining the areas where guinea worms are endemic and the areas where they have spontaneously disappeared.
Even in endemic countries, dracunculiasis does not occur in urban areas where piped water is supplied, and it is rare in rural communities where the principal sources of drinking water are fast-running streams or deep wells, because the intermediate host cyclops cannot survive in these environments. It inhabits still, shallow water, such as natural pools and step wells, where people are most likely to stand as they draw water, or seek relief from the burning pain of a guinea worm as it emerges.
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Skip to main content. Search for free courses, interactives, videos and more! Free learning from The Open University. Featured content. Free courses. All content. Course content. About this free course 3 hours study.The Department of Health and Human Services HHSCenters for Disease Control and Prevention CDC published the final rule for the Control of Communicable Diseases on January 19th, which includes amendments to the current domestic interstate and foreign quarantine regulations for the control of communicable diseases.
These amendments have been made to better protect the public health of the United States and reflect public comments received regarding the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking NPRM published on August 15, This rule became effective on March 21 st We note that many commenters raised concerns about forced vaccinations or compulsory medical treatment. We emphasize that this final rule does not authorize compulsory medical testing, vaccinations, or medical treatment.
Changes are described in detail below. These regulations generally apply to persons regardless of citizenship or nationality arriving into the United States from foreign countries or traveling between U. Certain provisions of these regulations also apply to conveyance operators e. No, this final rule does not authorize compulsory vaccination, medical testing, or medical treatment. When a medical examination is ordered as part of an isolation or quarantine order, the medical exam is conducted by trained clinical staff at a hospital who are responsible for obtaining informed consent.
The final rule now requires that the CDC Director, as part of the Federal order authorizing a medical examination, advise the individual that the medical examination will be conducted by an authorized, licensed health worker and with prior informed consent. CDC is committed to protecting the privacy of personally identifiable information collected and maintained under the Privacy Act of Under this system of records, CDC will only release data collected under this rule and subject to the Privacy Act to authorized users as legally permitted.
CDC will take precautionary measures including implementing the necessary administrative, technical and physical controls to minimize the risks of unauthorized access to medical and other private records. In addition, CDC will make disclosures from the system only with the consent of the subject individual, in accordance with the routine uses published in its SORN, or as allowed under an exception to the Privacy Act.
The repository contains scanned versions of approved records schedules, or Standard FormsRequest for Records Disposition Authority. The final rule is a significant improvement over previous regulations that contained no explicit due process protections. In response to public comment, the final rule added many strong due process protections for individuals subject to federal public health orders.
These protections include:. For individuals qualifying as indigent, CDC generally intends to provide independent legal counsel from outside of the agency. In general, this means that the CDC will attempt to obtain voluntary compliance with public health measures and explore options such as the appropriateness of a home environment if quarantine or isolation is necessary.
Yes, the final rule explicitly states that it does not affect the constitutional or statutory rights of individuals to obtain judicial review of their federal detention. Individuals who are detained in federal isolation or quarantine may file a petition for a writ of habeas corpus as appropriate external icon.Adherence to recommended infection prevention and control practices is an important part of protecting HCP and patients in healthcare settings.
If staffing shortages make this challenging, facilities could consider restricting HCP at higher risk for severe illness from COVID or who are pregnant from being present for higher risk procedures e. Find more information for facilities on mitigating HCP staffing shortages. HCP who are concerned about their individual risk for severe illness from COVID due to underlying medical conditions while caring for COVID patients can discuss their concerns with their supervisor or occupational health services.
However, pregnant women have had a higher risk of severe illness when infected with viruses from the same family as COVID and other viral respiratory infections, such as influenza.
There are no additional precautions for HCP. Some HCP may choose to implement extra measures when arriving home from providing healthcare, such as removing any clothing worn during delivery of healthcare, taking off shoes, washing clothing, and immediately showering. However, these are optional personal practices because there is insufficient evidence on whether they are effective. Currently, those at greatest risk of infection are persons who have had prolonged, unprotected close contact with a patient with symptomatic, confirmed COVID and those who live in or have recently been to areas with sustained transmission.
For more information, see Risk Assessment. The available data are currently insufficient to clearly identify risk factors for severe clinical outcomes. Based on limited data that are available for COVID patients, and data from related coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, people who may be at risk for more severe outcomes include older adults and persons who have certain underlying chronic medical conditions.
Those underlying chronic conditions include chronic lung disease, moderate to severe asthma, cardiac disease with complications, diabetes, or immunocompromising conditions.
Adherence to recommended infection prevention and control practices is an important part of protecting all HCP in healthcare settings.
The onset and duration of viral shedding and the period of infectiousness for COVID are not yet known. However, detection of viral RNA does not necessarily mean that infectious virus is present.
There are reports of asymptomatic infections detection of virus with no development of symptoms and pre-symptomatic infections detection of virus prior to development of symptoms with SARS-CoV-2, but their role in transmission is not yet known.
Based on existing literature, the incubation period the time from exposure to development of symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses e. The duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in upper and lower respiratory tract specimens and in extrapulmonary specimens is not yet known but may be several weeks or longer.
It is not yet known whether other non-respiratory body fluids from an infected person including vomit, urine, breast milk, or semen can contain viable, infectious SARS-CoV Not currently. These multi-pathogen molecular assays can detect a number of human respiratory viruses, including other human coronaviruses that can cause acute respiratory illness, but they do not currently detect SARS-CoV Patients can be infected with more than one virus at the same time.
Clinicians considering use of chest CT scans for diagnosis or management of COVID patients should consider whether such imaging will change clinical management. Appropriate infection control procedures should be followed before scanning subsequent patients.
Healthcare Providers should immediately notify infection control personnel at their facility if they suspect COVID in a patient. For information about registered clinical trials of investigational therapeutics for pre or post exposure prophylaxis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, visit ClinicalTrials.
Clinical management for hospitalized patients with COVID is focused on supportive care for complications, including supplemental oxygen and advanced organ support for respiratory failure, septic shock, and multi-organ failure.In this quiz we aim to spread awareness on communicable diseases and see how much you can tell us about them and how they are transferred.
Forgot your password? Speak now. Communicable Diseases. Please take the quiz to rate it. All questions 5 questions 6 questions 7 questions 8 questions 9 questions. Feedback During the Quiz End of Quiz. Play as Quiz Flashcard. Title of New Duplicated Quiz:.
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Remove Excerpt. Removing question excerpt is a premium feature. How is HIV transmitted? Through sharing needles, unprotected sexual intercourse, an open sore.
Persons with latent TB pose no threat to others, while persons with active TB should wear a mask when around others. Hepatitis A is spread through consuming food or water that has been contaminated with infected feces. Hepatitis B and C are spread through blood and bodily fluids.ALL MCQs of Various Diseases Asked in SSC Exams from 1999 to 2016
How do I protect myself from Hepatitis? Clean potentially contaminated surfaces with a bleach to water mixture. Back to top.