Components of nursery pdf
The importance of the best quality planting material as an initial investment is a well realized factor for persons engaged in Horticulture field.
So persons having a skill of propagation of plants can go for this avenue as an agro-business of future. Nursery is a place where plants are grown, nurtured and sold out. Generally, various commercial crop growers require a good quality saplings or grafts of genuine type. Nurseries are categorized in different ways.
Important Components of a Nursery
According to time duration nurseries are classified in two types: 1 Temporary nursery — This type of nursery is developed only to fulfill the requirement of the season or a targeted project. The nurseries for production of seedlings of transplanted vegetables and flower crops are of temporary nature.
Like wise temporary arrangement for growing forest seedlings for planting in particular area can also be done in temporary nursery. These nurseries have all the permanent features. The permanent nursery has permanent mother plants. The work goes on continuously all the year round in this nursery.
According to type of plants produced nurseries are classified in to following types: 1 Fruit plant Nurseries: - In this nursery seedlings and grafts of fruit crops are developed. In this nursery plants like geranium, rose, calendula, and marigold are propagated. Planning of nursery One has to decide which type of nursery is to be started. At the same time the durations and type of plants propagated should be finalized.
Selection of site Site is the basic requirement of a nursery. Site is a place upon which one can produce seedlings of plants. Qualities of a good site are: 1 Nearness of road 2 Near a habitat 3 Suitable climate 4 Neither shady nor exposed area 5 Sufficient sunlight 6 Good irrigation facilities 7 Good soil condition 8 Good transport facility.
Nursery plants require due care and attention after having either emerged from the seeds or have been raised from other sources like rootstock or through tissue culture technique. Generally they are grown in the open field under the protection of mother nature where, they should be able to face the local environment.
Before planting of sapling in the pots, the pots should be filled up with proper potting mixture. Now a days different size of earthen pots or plastic containers are used for propagation. For filling of pots loamy soil, sand and compost can be used in proportion.
Sprouted cuttings, bulbs, corms or polythene bag grown plants can be transferred in earthen pots for further growth. All the necessary precautions are taken before filling the pots and planting of sapling in it.
Generally sufficient quantity of nutrients is not available in the soil used for seedbed. Hence, well rotten F. Rooted cuttings, layers or grafted plants till they are transferred to the permanent location, require fertilizers. It is recommended that each nursery bed of 10 X 10m area should be given gm of ammonium sulphate, gm of Single super phosphate and gm of Muriate of potash. Irrigation either in the nursery beds or watering the pots is an important operation.
Heavy irrigation should be avoided. Adoption of plant protection measures, well in advance and in a planned manner is necessary for the efficient raising of nursery plants. For better protection from pest and diseases regular observation is essential. For its control good sanitation conditions are necessary. These treatments are given for 5 to 30 minutes. Some of the seed treatment are as follows: i Disinfection — The infection within the seed is eliminated by use of formaldehyde, hot water or mercuric chloride.It permits equal and unbiased application of treatment and evaluation.
Care must be taken in choosing the seedlings to start a plantation since plantings will be in the field for many years. The nursery management techniques described herein can be applied for both the genebank and hybrid trials. Nursery site selection A good nursery should: a be open, level and well-drained; b have light or loose-textured soil to facilitate nursery operations; c have a good source of water without possibility of being flooded; d be accessible to transportation; and e be far from existing potential sources of coconut insect pests and diseases, e.
A nursery site with a minimum area of 3, m 2 is needed to accommodate about 12, seednuts for 50 ha. To be fully operational, the nursery should have a fence for security; a shed to house the implements and supplies; farm implements and small equipment; a source of water for irrigation; and sufficiently trained manpower.
The seedbed Seedbed preparation - The seedbed fig. To facilitate sowing of nuts, it should be cleared, plowed and harrowed to a fine tilth. Seedbeds are prepared with the following dimensions: elevation: cm high to provide drainage width: 1 m to avoid stepping on seednuts during maintenance and transfer operations length: a 2 m long seedbed is ideal for easy inspection, management and maintenance pathway: 1 m between seedbeds should be provided to facilitate inspection, selection, pricking, maintenance and seedling transfer activities.
Sowing of seednuts - Nuts are planted by firmly setting them either upright or slightly tilted with the germ end at the top fig. The nuts are set close to one another to prevent them from floating in case of heavy rains. Pricking - When the sprout emerges through the husk to a height of cm, seedlings are planted in the field nursery either directly in the soil or in polybags to allow them more space to grow.
At this stage, some roots, already out of the husk, might have been injured in the process of pricking. It is therefore necessary to trim them before transferring in the field or polybag nursery. The trimming of these roots assists the seedling to establish quickly as it will induce the seedling to produce more roots. Seedlings of the same age are pricked on the same day and immediately planted in the field or polybag nursery.
It is very important that pricking is done only when the field or polybag nursery is already prepared. Pricking can be scheduled once a week. The date of seed germination is recorded in a field book as well as the date of each transfer to the field or polybag nursery. After pricking the germinated seednuts from the seedbed, the vacated plot is refilled with soil so as not to destabilize the remaining ungerminated seednuts.
The polybag nursery As mentioned above, there are two types of nurseries for rearing coconut seedlings: polybag nursery and field nursery. A polybag nursery fig. It is preferred over the field nursery because: a transplanting shock is greatly minimized, thereby promoting early establishment of transplanted seedlings; b seedlings can be retained longer in the nursery when conditions for field planting are not yet favourable; and c age-wise, seedling selection is easily accomplished.
Land preparation - Depending on the area, this involves either heavy or light cultivation of the soil and clearing the area of weeds and other existing vegetation and obstructions to facilitate operations like staking and placement of nuts. Polybagging of germinated nuts - A polybag, preferably black, UV resistant for durability and measuring 40 x 40 x 0. Decomposed sawdust, corn cobs, rice hull and other organic materials can be used.
This will reduce the weight of the half-filled polybag and improve soil fertility. If polybags are not gussetted Note: polybags with folds at the bottom may be orderedthe bottom comers should be folded inward to make the bottom of the bag round and for it to stand firmly.
The open edge of the bag is also folded back about 3 cm to prevent it from tearing easily. The germinated nut is then placed in the half-filled bag with the sprout in an upright position in the centre of the bag.
Next, the bag is filled with soil with the sides slightly pressed to keep the nut firm until it is fully covered. When the polybagged seedlings are ready, they are laid out in the polybag nursery.
Laying out of the polybag nursery staking - Equal setting of the seedlings at optimum distance allows them to grow and develop normally. The technique follows a triangular system with equal spacing of 60 cm. Figure 12 shows how these materials are to be used to attain a cm spacing in a triangular manner. To minimize shading, rows should be oriented in a North-South direction.
As a start, about 10 m of twine preferably cotton is marked every 30 cm along its entire length.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Anuradha Krishnan. Name of : Co- Investigators.
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Head of Institute : 8. Duration of the Project : 9. The specific agro-climatic condition of the region offers tremendous potential for the development of fruit industry. High productivity and successful cultivation of fruit crops depends mainly on good quality nursery stock of promising cultivars. In Eastern Uttar Pradesh where mango, aonla and litchi are grown on extensive scale, there has been an ever growing demand for quality planting material. However, non-availability of quality planting material and its dissemination within the area has been one of the main constraints for low productivity and poor pace of expansion in the area of fruit crops in the region.
Fruit plants, are the foundation on which an orchard is built. There is no denying to the facts that modem nursery will have to play a vital role in any planned work for increasing the area under fruit crops. The importance of the production of quality fruit plants has been realized but the attempt to standardize the practices involved in the maintenance of the quality is negligible.
This minimizes the maintenance and expenditure on uprooting, transport and also assures almost cent- per cent establishment. It is proposed in this proposal that new innovations will be attempted in propagation of mango, aonla and litchi.
In order to boost up the quality nursery stock production, there is a need to develop model fruit nursery of mango, aonla and litchi in this zone. Ultimate Goal To improve the present productivity of fruit crops and economy of the farmers of eastern U.
Objective Establishment of model nursery at The proposed project needs to be established with following objectives. While selecting mother plants following basic characteristics have been considered i Consistently high performance and yield over several years with high quality fruits ii Healthy and free from incidence of diseases and insect pests iii Plants attained full bearing age, since its characteristics known only after bearing.
These plants will be severely pruned to keep them in vegetative phase and to produce enough shoots for propagation round year.
The maintenance of these blocks will be done regularly so that these are healthy and free of diseases and insect pests. To avoid over crowding and problem of light penetration, canopy management will be practiced depending upon the situation. The maintenance of mother plants, right from the time of planting to the stage of bearing and subsequent years will be done.
Agro-techniques will be followed judiciously, so that vigorous and healthy scion shoots are made available for multiplication. Poly and net house facilities Propagation of fruit plant in Eastern U. Only months are suitable for the propagation. But with aid of poly and net house facilities, propagation period can be increased to months.
Looking above points in view poly and net house will be constructed in the project.Dry nursery. Seedlings are ready for planting within days after seeding DAS. Soak the seeds for 24 hrs, drain and incubate the soaked seeds for 24 hrs, sow when the seeds sprout and radicle seed root grows to mm long and cover them with dry soil to a thickness of 5mm. Seed Rate, Quality and Treatment. Before sowing, the seed should be treated with fungicides which protects the seed against soil-born fungi and also give a boost to the seedlings.
This dry seed treatment gives protection to the seedlings up to 40 days from seedling disease such as blast. Management strategies. Sprinkle seedlings with 0. Apply pre-emergence herbicides viz. Grown up weeds may be removed by manually. Symptom of damage Larvae cut the seedlings in large scale Severe infestation - cattle grazing appearance to the field.
They feed gregariously and march from field to field. Nature of damage.
The tips of leaves get rolled longitudinally into needle like outgrowths and turn whitish. In severe cases, the lower leaves also turn yellowish. The infestation may be rated as mild, if there is less than three needle like leaves and as severe, if there are more than three outgrowths with the lower leaves also showing chlorosis and scorching.
The infestation invariably disappears after sharp showers. As a result fine yellowish lines or silvery streaks are seen on the leaves.
The Newborn Examination
Later, the leaves curl longitudinally and begin to dry from the tip downwards. In sever cases, the entire nursery may dry up and fail to produce seedling. Sometimes transplanted crop is also affected in the early stages. Both nymphs and adults suck the plant sap from the leaf and leaf sheath. Mild infestation reduces the vigour of the plant and the number of reproductive tillers.
Heavy infestation causes withering and complete drying of the crop. It also transmits plant diseases such as dwarf, transitory yellowing, yellow dwarf and rice tungro virus Tungro is transmitted during short feeding period.
Spray anyone of the following herbicide: Carbofuran 3 G 3. The caterpillar cuts a piece of leaf roll it longitudinally into a tubular structure and remains inside. It feeds by scraping the green tissue of the leaf.
The cases often float in the water. Also called as sesame leaf spot or Helminthosporiose or fungal blight Symptoms. It should be dry ploughed twice and apply 1tonne of FYM or compost to 20cents nursery. Later, it should be irrigated and allowed to be wet for another two days. Afterwards it should be puddled twice and the puddling may be repeated after a gap of one week.
Basal application of DAP 40kg is recommended when the seedlings are to be pulled out in days after sowing in less fertile nursery soils, and if not readily available, apply straight fertilizers 16kg of urea and kg of super phosphate. After levelling and final puddling, beds of convenient length m with width of 2.Greenhouse Building Materials Growers Supply offers a wide range of greenhouse building materials to help with building a greenhouse or hoop house, as well as repairing your commercial greenhouse.
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During your time in the nursery, we trust that you will become comfortable with the essential elements of the exam and be able to identify many of the common physical findings. This infant has a normal pink color, normal flexed posture and strength, good activity and resposiveness to the exam, relatively large size over 9 poundsphysical findings consistent with term gestational age skin, ears, etcand a nice strong cry.
Bruising is visible on this infant's head. Scalp edema caput succedaneum is a very common finding. Cephalohematoma sub-periosteal bleed is occasionally noted. Gentle but firm palpation will help distinguish these two entities from each other and from molding. Suture frequently overlap each other "over-riding" and fontanelle size varies.
Within 24 hours, edema and molding will already show improvement. Infants have very short necks, but they should have full range of motion from side to side, and the neck should appear symmetric. To palpate clavicles, use a firm, steady pressure along the enitre length of the bone, from shoulder to sternum, to detect crepitus, edema, or step-offs that indicate clavicular fracture.
The infant above has swelling over the left clavicle as a result of a fracture. Eyes should be symmetric and in a normal position. Eyelid edema is common after birth and resolves a a few days. Slight yellow discharge in a normal eye may be benign, but injection in the conjunctiva seen above in the baby's right eye is abnormal. Red light reflexes can be seen by looking at the pupils through an ophthalmoscope; they may appear orange-yellow in darker skinned infants.
Ears should not appear low or posteriorly rotated. Although nasal congestion can be present in newborns, there should not be nostril flaring or respiratory distress. Palate should be intact visibly and by palpation submucosal clefts occur. Tongue should be freely mobile. In the photo above, the lingual frenulum under the tongue is restricting tongue elevation when the baby cries. Chest should have a normal contour with nipples near the mid-clavicular line.
Small breast buds are present in term infants. Breathing should appear easy. The infant in the photo above has unusually prominent ribs as a result of intercostal retractions, a sign of respiratory distress.
Lung sounds should be clear and equal.Hope this is useful. RosieReply Cynthia says: November 9, 2017 at 2:08 pm Hi there, question about your results on Question 16. Reply Rosie Murphy says: November 9, 2017 at 3:26 pm Hi Cynthia. Thanks so much for reading.
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